Biomarkers can be proteins, cellular components, physiologic or imaging findings that relate specifically to injury or a disease. Protein biomarkers can be found in bodily fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, or urine. The presence and quantity of the protein biomarker in these fluids can be determined by antibody-based assays to assess the degree of injury or disease and in the best circumstances to predict recovery.
Development of valid biomarkers will have a major impact on diagnosis, management, and treatment of brain injury patients. Accurate diagnosis in acute care environments can significantly simplify decisions about patient management including whether to conduct further studies, admit or discharge.